Glaucoma is caused by increased pressure within the eye. This increased pressure is caused by improper drainage of the eye fluid. Over time, it causes damage to the optic nerve. Through early detection, diagnosis and treatment, you and your doctor can help to preserve your vision.
>> People over the age of 45
>> People who have a family history of glaucoma.
>> People with abnormally high intraocular pressure (IOP).
>> People of African descent.
>> People who have :
Regular, long-term steroid/cortisone use.
A previous eye injury.
At first, open-angle glaucoma has no symptoms. It causes no pain. Vision stays normal. Glaucoma can develop in one or both eyes.
Without treatment, people with glaucoma will slowly lose their peripheral (side) vision. As glaucoma remains untreated, people may miss objects to the side and out of the corner of their eye. They seem to be looking through a tunnel. Over time, straight-ahead (central) vision may decrease until no vision remains.
Many people may know of the “air puff” test or other tests used to measure eye pressure in an eye examination. But this test alone cannot detect glaucoma. Glaucoma is found most often during an eye examination through dilated pupils. This means drops are put into the eyes during the examination to enlarge the pupils. This allows the eye care professional to see more of the inside of the eye to check for signs of glaucoma.
No. There is no cure for Glaucoma. Vision lost from the disease cannot be restored. With treatment, further visual loss can be prevented.
>> Open angle glaucoma: This common type of glaucoma gradually reduces your peripheral vision without other symptoms. By the time you notice it, permanent damage has already occurred.
>> Closed Angle Glaucoma: Angle-closure or narrow-angle glaucoma produces sudden symptoms such as eye pain, headaches, halos around lights, dilated pupils, vision loss, red eyes, nausea and vomiting. These signs may last for a few hours, then return again for another round. Each attack takes with it part of your field of vision.
>> Secondary glaucoma. Symptoms of chronic glaucoma following an eye injury could indicate secondary glaucoma, which also may develop with presence of eye infection, inflammation, a tumor or an enlarged cataract.
Name of Test
The inner eye pressure
The shape and color of the optic nerve
The complete field of vision
Perimetry (visual field test)
The angle in the eye where the iris meets the cornea
Thickness of the cornea
To be safe and accurate, five factors should be checked before making a glaucoma diagnosis.
In our hospital, Humphrey’s Field Analyzer is used to assess a patient’s field of vision. This examines whether the area (field) perceived by a patient while looking straight ahead is normal. If the patient has glaucoma, vision towards the sides is usually hampered.
The test consists basically of responding every time a flash of light is perceived, all the while looking straight ahead. This test can be completed within 10 to 30 minutes depending on the patient’s co-operation.
Gonioscopy is done using a lens to see whether the area where the fluid from the eye drains out is open or closed. In severe cases, an operation called trabulectomy (TRAB) is done to reduce pressure inside the eye. This operation takes time and not all surgeons do it. The facility is available in Jharkhand Eye Bank, Hospital and Research Centre.